Category Archives: Tribes Digging In

Oglala Sioux – Pine Ridge, South Dakota

“I WANT TO SATURATE PINE RIDGE WITH HEALTHY VEGETABLES,” says Steve Hernandez, Oglala Sioux Tribe gardening instructor. “The interest in gardening here is huge, and education is key. Through classes in everything from soil preparation to preserving the harvest, we ensure that our people are increasingly able to do this for themselves.”

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For Oglalas, eating fresh, organic produce will mean better health. It’s a declaration of sovereignty, according to Hernandez, a tribal member and a former educator for South Dakota State University’s extension service. And it’s starkly practical as well, he says: “Most of our food is trucked in. If there’s bad weather—common on the Plains—it doesn’t get through.”

Hernandez facilitates collaboration among a huge network of groups and individuals who spent the month of May tilling, planting and laying out drip irrigation lines throughout the reservation. These include Pine Ridge schools from pre-K through college; a youth emergency shelter in Pine Ridge village; Lakota Funds, in Kyle, which provides loans and grants; and Kyle’s youth center, Oyate Teca, where kids participate in gardening and other wholesome activities. The center also hosts the Lakota Ranch Beginning Farmer/ Rancher Program, with courses for adults in horticulture and animal husbandry.Oglala4

In an ordinary growing season on the Northern Plains, indeed during an ordinary week, a gardener may face drought, grasshoppers, tornadoes, thunderstorms, hail, ceramic-hard soil and raccoons and other four-legged raiders. Then there’s the heat, which is worsening as the planet heats up. “Between June and August last year, there were only five days below 95 degrees,” recalled Cook. “I have watched the climate change.”

Cook, who is married to tribal member Loretta Afraid of Bear, has been helping Pine Ridge tackle these challenges since 1985. With support from Running Strong for Native American Youth, Plenty International and other funders, Slim Buttes’s 18-plus workers till more than 400 Pine Ridge household plots annually. These provide nearly 2,500 people with fresh fruits and vegetables—a little more than 6 percent of the reservation’s population.

The group hands out some 20,000 seedlings from its greenhouse, along with grocery sacks of seeds for peas, beans, peppers, tomatoes, lettuce, squash and more. Also included are plants, such as the medicinal herb Echinacea, that have prominent blossoms and help attract pollinators.

At Slim Buttes, gardeners amend the soil with needed nutrients, as they might anywhere, says Yellow Hair. But they also pray: “Prayer is a little-understood energy source. Every day, everything we do coalesces the forces of the universe into our soil.”Oglala3

“Gardens provide liveliness, fun and beauty, in addition to fruits and vegetables,” says Schoch, of Old West Gypsy Market: “Gardens are gathering places. They make the community a nice place.”

Condensed from an article by Stephanie Woodard

Read more at http:// indiancountrytodaymedianetwork. com/2013/06/24/dig-it-northern-plains- gardeners-grow-food-health-and- sovereignty-150076

From Food for Thought, Issue 11. Published November 2013.

Sierra Seed Cooperative

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Our Mission: Sierra Seed Cooperative is building a rare and diverse seed collection, educating members about the practices of seed-saving, and growing a committed community of caring farmers and seed stewards.

Our mission is to create an accessible and affordable source of regionally adapted seeds, and a local seed bank. This will promote sustainable and ecological seed production in Nevada County and in our bio-region. Regionally adapted seeds are at the foundation of any truly sustainable local agriculture. Our goal is to preserve genetic diversity, empowering our local farmers and gardeners to take back the power of the seed stewardship. We need to work with our plants and seeds to create a new revolution and evolution of local foods, which better fit our lands, our growing methods, and our tastes and imaginations. We aim to save and select for seed varieties that are continuing to adapt to our unique growing conditions in the Sierra Foothills.

We sell only public domain, open-pollinated (OP) seed. None of our seeds are proprietary hybrids (F1), patented (PVP) or genetically modified (GMO) and all of our seed is grown without the use of chemical fertilizers, herbicides or pesticides.

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We are seeding the local revolution. While our focus is on varieties that do well in our bioregion, we hope to make these varieties available to others who grow in similar climates in other places. Locally adapted varieties are the foundation of the durable and resilient local food system that we are helping to create.

Why is Local Seed Important? Seed is a precious common heritage and is an essential component to the future sustainability our food. There is an urgent need to protect seed sovereignty; the corporations who dominate the seed industry are not working for the common people. It is the right of the public to own and develop our seed supply, especially if we are to ensure food security in a way that is congruent to our values of a healthy ecosystem and a just society.

Learn more at: http://www.sierraseeds.org/

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From Food for Thought, Issue 6. Published May 2013

The Northwest Indian Treatment Center

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The Northwest Indian Treatment Center runs a 45-day inpatient treatment program in Elma, WA. The Squaxin Island Tribe created the program to address an unmet need for culturally based drug and alcohol treatment centers for Indian people who grew up on reservations. The program specializes in treating people with chronic relapse patterns related to unresolved grief and trauma, including historic trauma from colonization.

The treatment center weaves culture into the fabric of the program. According to the director, June O’Brien (Nansemond), patients must be able to see themselves in their recovery, and when patients’ traditions are honored in the healing process, re-traumatization is less likely to occur. “Their culture is their medicine,” she says. “Native plants, singing, drumming, a sweat lodge, beading, and support from local Native spiritual communities are part of the program. These act like pillars to hold patients up during their recovery.”

In 2005, the treatment center created the Native Foods Nutrition Project to increase patients’ access to and knowledge of high-quality foods, including fruits, vegetables, and Native foods such as berries, wild greens, seafood, and game. Weekly hands-on classes teach patients how to grow, harvest, process, and prepare these foods. Twice a month, tribal elders, storytellers, and cultural specialists speak as pan of the program. On Sundays, families can visit patents, and the treatment center also offers monthly classes to patients and their family members. This helps families see what patients are learning and teaches activities that families can do together at home.

The partnership also benefits patients who want to enter college or find jobs working with traditional foods and medicines. Upon graduation from the treatment center, patients receive a Traditional Foods and Medicines Certificate with 2.7 continuing education unit credits.

For full text, visit: http://www.northwestanthropology.com/document_files/TCJ%20Food%20 Sovereignty%20Elise%20Krohn.pdf

From Food for Thought, Issue 7. Published June 2013.

The Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community (SMSC)

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Mazopiya is a community-oriented natural food market that focuses on clean organic foods and carries local products whenever possible, including produce from the SMSCʼs organic garden Mdewakanton Wozupi.

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Mazopiya opened in the fall of 2010. In the Dakota language, “Mazopiya” means “a store, a place where things are put away and kept.”

Mazopiya consists of a produce department, grocery department, grass fed meats, dairy, cheeses, pet foods, frozen foods, bulk foods and products, health/wellness/personal care department, soup and salad bar, and much more. The store also offers a Community Room for classes and demonstrations.

Mazopiya emphasizes seasonal eating by presenting customers with locally grown, in season produce. Locally sourced and produced buffalo, honey, maple syrup, wild rice, and other items are available. Customers are encouraged to live clean and green.

Values important to Mazopiya include offering sustainable, local, organic, foods whenever possible, along with offering fair trade foods, those which pay a living wage and promote sustainability in developing countries.

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Geothermal System

Geothermal heating system for temperature control captures heat and cooling from the ground. Wells were drilled down 180 feet to utilize the temperature of the earth, which maintains a constant 52 degrees Fahrenheit, to help heat and cool the building. The parking lot was designed with a minimum number of parking spaces to reduce impervious surfaces. Drought tolerant landscaping was used so no irrigation is needed.

The building also runs on alternative energy purchased from the utility company.

If you’re excited to learn more, visit http://www.shakopeedakota.org/ and http://mazopiya.com/about. html

From Food for Thought, Issue 12. Published in December 2013.

Lake Superior Whitefish: Carrying on a Family Tradition

Lake_Superior_WhitefishPat & Chris Peterson, Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa

Avid fishermen for subsistence prior to European settlement, the Lake Superior Chippewa quickly found Gichigami’s (Ojibwe word for Lake Superior) fish to be a valued trade item once explorers penetrated to this inland sea. Tribal fishermen traded fish harvested from birch bark canoes, using gill nets made form twisted and knotted strips of willow bark.

As more and more settler pushed into the Lake Superior region, non-Indian commercial fishing began to take hold with the use of large boats and massive nets. In 1984, the treaty tribes formed the Great Lakes Indian Fish and Wildlife Commission (GLIFWC), an agency of elven Ojibwe tribes in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan, to jointly manage the Lake Superior tribal commercial fishery as well as off-reservation inland hunting, fishing and gather activities in the ceded territories.

Tribal commercial fishermen in Lake Superior primarily target whitefish, but also fish for lake trout, siscowet, herring, and salmon. Tribal commercial fishing is regulated through tribal codes as well as through negotiated agreements with the state of Wisconsin for the Wisconsin waters of Lake Superior.

The family owned and managed Peterson’s Fish Market is one of several fish businesses run by tribal families. They are an inter-generational family business. Gilmore Peterson, a Red Cliff tribal member and a fourth generation commercial fisherman, learned the trade from his father Wilfred, who in turn learned from his father. Today, Gilmore and his wife Pat run the business while their three sons, Chris, Joel and Matt, ply the waters and the rest of their family members work at the Peterson’s Fish Market in Hancock, Michigan and the adjacent Four Suns cafe.

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For the full story, visit TheWays.org.

The Ways is an ongoing series of stories from Native communities around the central Great Lakes. The Ways is a production of Wisconsin Media Lab.

From Food for Thought, Issue 9. Published August 2013.

Doi Dicutta Community Project

Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribe - Pyramid Lake, Nevada

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The Doi Dicutta Community Project is a permaculture sustainability and sovereignty project. Members of the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone tribe are laying the groundwork for upcoming projects including: rain gardens and swales, grey water reuse, native medicine gardens, native berry and perennial gardens, annual community gardens, local food cooking classes, cob benches, and community space building.

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The design team is beginning to design plans for the permaculture-designed swales and rain gardens in the subdivision on Doi Dicutta Street. The design team consists of Carmen Gonzales, Environmental Protection Specialist from the Tribe, and volunteer designers Neil Bertrando, Permaculture Designer, and Oren Peters, Draftsman. Included are water-catchment features that will be built over the course of the next year to capture rainwater that floods the roads and infiltrate it back into the ground. The project will also focus on building elements of the community that can be an example of sustainable living. Some of the ideas include orchards and berry gardens, community laundry with grey-water reuse, bicycle exchange, community tool shed, vegetable and medicine gardens, outdoor cob ovens, art sculpture areas, and community gathering space.

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Permaculture is a design science that builds systems that work together in beneficial relationships. The systems that permaculture-thinking creates help to heal the earth while creating other benefits such as greater yield, stronger community, and healthy people. Permaculture is rooted in the ethics of caring for the earth, caring for people, and sharing the abundance created so that we can continue caring for the earth and each other.

To learn more, search “Doi Dicutta” on facebook.

Or, contact Carmen Gonzales at carmen@enviro-fpst.org/(775) 423-0590

Text from the Doi Dicutta Community Project’s facebook page.

From Food for Thought, Issue 8. Published July 2013.

Special Report: Reportback from the 2014 Food Sovereignty Summit

By Joseph Miller, Big Pine Paiute Garden Manager

Oneida Nation • Green Bay, WI

Food-Summit-Logo Attending the Food Sovereignty Summit 2014 at Oneida Nation in Green Bay this April was a truly unique experience from start to finish. The Oneidas are hospitable hosts and have made much effort to preserve many facets of their cultural heritage. In a region surrounded by corporate influence they still practice traditional ceremonies, song, dance, language and grow, process and consume a respectable portion of their indigenous native food. Tsyunhehkwa pronounced joon-hey-qwa would be a term we would become familiar with over the period of our stay with the Oneidas. Loosely translates it means life sustenance and is the name of Oneida Nations culturally and community based agriculture program. Nightly we were treated to traditional foods such as bison, venison, lake trout, wild rice, corn mush, wojapi, corn soup and fresh vegetables. They were prepared by four accomplished native chefs Franco Lee, Wolf Thorstenson, Sean Sherman and Arlie Doxtator.

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On The first morning of the Summit we were treated to a traditional tobacco burning ceremony and prayer by our hosts. Next we where given a welcome reception with song and flying of colors by local native armed forces veteran color guard and a quick introduction to Tribal Council and the Clan Mothers of the three Oneida clans Wolf Clan, Bear Clan and Turtle Clan.

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A keynote introduction speech to get us geared up was given by TED Talks speaker Winona LaDuke, Anishinaabekwe (Ojibwe) environmental activist and founder of Honor the Earth. An organization whose mission is to create awareness and support for Native environmental issues and to develop needed financial and political resources for the survival of sustainable Native communities. Our keynote speaker opened by talking about the destructive blizzard of 2013/2014 and the devastating loss of livestock in the north as a result and she shared her personal experience of seeing the dead animals personally as she rode horse back on a long distant ride in the North Country. She spoke about hydraulic fracturing or fraking as its called and the need to put an end to it on native inhabited lands. She encouraged protest of the development and expansion of the Enbridge Clipper pipeline and the Enbridge Sandpiper pipeline. Pipelines carrying oil across native inhabited lands to be delivered to tanker ships in the Great Lakes.Moving into the context of the conference she spoke about native food systems and traditional foods, stressing the importance of home gardening and the benefit of a healthy dietary lifestyle. The entire time putting emphasis on the phrase, “How sovereign are we if we cannot feed ourselves?” It was a truly moving keynote speech.

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The second morning Michael Roberts the President of First Nations Development Institute, the organization responsible for funding the development of the BPPT permaculture project spoke, on the importance of developing these sovereign and sustainable food projects. They are genuinely the financial backbone for many small tribes being able to accomplish the development of such projects.

Next we were treated to a short speech from another TED Talks speaker Valerie Segrest, a member of the Muckleshoot Indian Tribe, she serves her community as the coordinator of the Muckleshoot Food Sovereignty Project and also works for the Northwest Indian College’s Traditional Plants Program as a nutrition educator. She spoke to us about how the ndian tribes around the Puget Sound have practiced sustainability with its foods for thousands of years, but now the prairie lands and meadows are in decline and salmon runs are waning. She also emphasized on the importance of edible landscapes, home gardening and healthy dietary lifestyle as a beneficial attribute to the vitality of indigenous people.

On the third morning we were given a presentation on the Three Sisters Philosophy. The Oneidas are traditionally farmers. At the core of the sustainability model is what is known as the Three Sisters: corn, beans and squash. A gift given to them by the Creator to replenish their bodies with Tsyunhehkwa or life sustenance, the relationship between these plants is symbiotic. The corn provides a stalk for the beans to climb upon. The beans replenish the nitrogen for the health of the corn. The squash plants large leaves cover the ground beneath minimizing weed growth and increasing water retention. These foods also compliment each other in nutrition values. The corn provides carbohydrates. The beans are packed with protein and contain some of the essential amino acids. The squash fruit contains vitamins and minerals vital to well rounded development.

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In summary hearing about the development and success of other Tribes agriculture projects and seeing where the bar has been set with Tribes such as the Oneida Nation gave me time to reflect and brainstorm new ideas that can be implemented into our own project. In my personal opinion health, well being and freedom from the stranglehold of food corporation are crucial factors of our Tribal sovereignty.

After all, how sovereign are we if we cannot feed ourselves?

From Food for Thought, Issue 14. Published May 2014.

Mvskoke Food Sovereignty Initiative (MFSI)

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Okmulgee, Oklahoma Muscogee Nation

The Mvskoke people were indigenous to what is now the Southeast United States and are an American Indian federally recognized tribe. Mvskoke food heritage and traditions goes back in time long before the Trail of Tears forced them to Oklahoma. For centuries the Mvskoke maintained a successful agriculture-based culture that sustained large populations living in towns along the rivers and creeks. These were the “mound builders” who developed a sophisticated civilization, taking care of the food, spiritual and political needs of their people. Growing, preserving and using traditional foods plays an important role in cultural activities.

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The Mvskoke Food Sovereignty Initiative works to enable the Mvskoke people and their neighbors to provide for their food and health needs now and in the future through sustainable agriculture, economic development, community involvement, cultural and educational programs, such as:

  • Community Outreach for Producers’ Empowerment Project
  • Food & Fitness Policy Council
  • Seed Bank
  • Farmers’ Market
  • Linking local growers with Tribal Programs
  • Supporting Tribal Sovereignty a Community Food Project

The seed bank was established to preserve and restore endangered seeds that are culturally linked to Native gardens. Through this project, MFSI is successfully restoring the Mvskoke favorite corn known as Sofkee corn that had almost gone extinct.

MFSI Food Sovereignty Goals include: Recognizing the right to self determination; establishing a tribal, national policy for the protection for Indigenous knowledge and biological resources and a tribal food policy council responsible for protecting the health, security and general welfare of the Muscogee Creek Nation.

For more information, visit www.mvskokefood.org. Text adapted from MFSI website.

From Food for Thought, Issue 13. Published April 2014. 

A New Generation of O’odham Farmers: a program of Tohono O’odham Community Action (TOCA) in Sells, AZ

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Tohono O’odham Community Action (TOCA) is one of the few non-governmental organizations (NGOs) operating in “Indian Country.” As an independent 501(c)(3) non-profit, TOCA has been able to respond to Tohono O’odham community members’ interests — be they traditional basket-weavers, desert harvesters, or teens — more “nimbly” than federal, tribal, educational, and medical bureaucracies.

Sometimes TOCA is able to partner with local coalitions or pan- native initiatives, but TOCA’s guiding question is always, “How does this work empower Tohono O’odham individuals and families to determine their own future?”

Revitalizing a local food system economy and Tohono O’odham farming traditions are approaches to this question dating back to TOCA’s first garden in 1995. The answers below, from TOCA staff, focus on TOCA’s farmer/gardener training initiative, “A New Generation of O’odham Farmers.”

For more information about TOCA, visit www.TOCAonline. org or find TOCA- Tohono O’odham Community Action on Facebook.

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What are the events and/or programs that led to the creation of the “New Generation of O’odham Farmers” program at Tohono O’odham Community Action (TOCA)?

It has taken 15 years of TOCA’s community work to create the conditions necessary for the success of the “New Generation of O’odham Farmers” program. TOCA’s first farm apprentices just graduated, but this is only the first step toward creating a local sustainable agricultural economy and a healthy native foods system on the reservation.

TOCA was growing traditional Tohono O’odham plants in our first community garden in 1995. We also organized seasonal harvesting trips for wild foods growing in the Sonoran Desert, including cholla buds, prickly pear, and saguaro fruit. Elders taught us how to eat from the desert and how to prepare traditional foods. We also grew plants in our gardens to be used as materials for basket-weaving.

TOCA has been farming traditional crops since 2001. That year, the family members of co-founder Terrol Dew Johnson said they wanted to invite TOCA to replant the land of his grandfather’s farm. It had not been planted for decades. To try to re-start traditional Tohono O’odham ak chin (monsoon floodwater) farming was an exciting, if somewhat daunting, opportunity. We began to sell produce at cost, under the label “Tohono O’odham Trading Co.”

In 2003, we were able to harvest 2,500 pounds of tepary beans. At the time, that was a 10-fold increase over the previous year’s yield. Today TOCA produces 230,000 pounds of healthy, Tohono O’odham foods. Dry packaged goods are sold to the public through our Desert Rain Gallery. In 2009, we opened Desert Rain Cafe, where healthy, affordable dishes are prepared using traditional ingredients. Lately, we’ve been able to expand in the local school cafeterias to include an “O’odham meal option,” so that kids from Head Start to high school are able to eat the foods of their ancestors. We pair this with culturally-based garden and nutrition classes at the schools, led by our young adult leaders. Young O’odham United Through Health (Y.O.U.T.H.) and Project Oidag (“oidag” means field or garden) have been enthusiastically teaching kids about Tohono O’odham foods and how to plant them.

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With the “New Generation” program, we are able to really focus on training native farmers. It was a natural next step to expand farmer training once TOCA had created the conditions of farm production and local demand. Based upon our success revitalizing Tohono O’odham agriculture, we got a three-year Beginning Farmers grant from the USDA. As TOCA’s Nina Altshul says, “It takes a village to raise a farmer.” We cannot merely train farmers, because we also need to create markets for their produce. We need to help Tohono O’odham families, who have been raised on commodity foods and fast foods, to learn to cook (and to want to eat) locally-farmed foods. Right now, TOCA is working with every age, from pre-schoolers to elders, to increase the growing, harvesting, cooking, and eating of Tohono O’odham foods. The “New Generation of O’odham Farmers” is at the heart of all our food system revitalization work, because this training program prepares young O’odham farmers to become the local food producers of both today and tomorrow.

Is traditional medicines incorporated into the “New Generation of O’odham Farmers” program?

We say that “Traditional Food is Medicine.” It regulates blood sugar, has lots of organic nutrients, and the work it takes to forage or farm improves your body and your spirit. Our ancestors were healthy. We want that back. We don’t want to have the diabetes and childhood obesity and an average lifespan of 55 years old. We want the next generation of elders to be able to get really old.

Is foraging of traditional foods incorporated into the “New Generation of O’odham Farmers” program? If so, in what ways?

Foraging – or harvesting wild foods from the Sonoran Desert – has been part of TOCA’s seasonal activities since 1995. The centerpiece of the year is Bahidaj Camp, the saguaro fruit harvest, but we also have seasonal harvesting throughout the year for things like cholla buds. All the farmer trainees — apprentices and summer youth alike — participate in our wild foodharvest field trips and Bahaidaj Camp. We also have begun hunting rabbits!

How has the “New Generation” program and Project Oidag involved elders and their knowledge base in these programs?

A good indication of how intensively elders have been involved in food system revitalization here is the book TOCA published in 2010, which is available at our gallery and (also online at Blurb.com). It is called From I’itoi’s Garden: Tohono O’odham Food Traditions. It is a part cook book, part how-to harvest, and it also contain many planting songs and traditional stories involving Tohono O’odham foods. Over 30 elders contributed to the book and it remains our “bible” for guidance in our garden projects, school meals, and culturally-based nutrition training. One hard thing is that a number of our founding elders — Danny Lopez, Frances Manuel, and Terrol’s grandmother, have passed on. The “New Generation” program is really building upon the years and years of teaching they and other elders have provided. Now it’s up to us to take it forward. One of our staff members, Michael Enis, spent much of his youth learning the traditional songs from elders and continues

to learn. He teaches all of us the seasonal planting songs so that every season is blessed traditionally. In the winter, we also have storytelling nights in a community garden or at the farm.

What is the extent of community knowledge of and participation in this program?

Community support has been incredible. Even in our first year of the “New Generation” program, we had too many applicants for summer and full-time apprenticeship programs, so we had to conduct interviews and create waiting lists. Part of this comes from the credibility TOCA has built up over the years. While lots of agencies and programs talk about doing things, TOCA ‘s name includes the word “action,” and we have let our actions speak our words. Fifteen years ago, this meant people would hang back and see whether we were serious, whether we were staying around. Fifteen years later, people know we do what we say and we don’t say things we won’t do.

All this has led to amazing participation by community members. For example, in 2012 we had over 100 people camp out in the summer heat for a weekend of saguaro fruit harvesting, and for Halloween, about 150 — some 50 young families, many in costume– walked or ran the mile and a half “Tour de Oidag” between three of our gardens in Sells. There is a real sense of celebration around health, Tohono O’odham culture, and growing traditional foods. cholla buds in bucket

From Food for Thought, Issue 5. Published April 2014.

Navajo Nation: Service to All Relations (STAR) School

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Native schools on reservations with limited budgets often struggle to provide healthy, unprocessed and culturally relevant foods for their students. One possible and viable solution to address the severe conditions of poverty, social stress and health and nutrition problems in Native communities and schools is a Farm-to-School program in which local farmers supply produce to the schools directly within in their communities.

STAR School is an elementary charter school located near the southwestern edge of the Navajo Nation. The school is based on four values: respect, relationship, responsibility and reasoning that are rooted in Navajo Peacemaking, a traditional form of conflict resolution.

According to Dr. Mark Sorensen, STAR’s co-founder and Director, the Farm-to-School program was supported from the idea that plants have sustained families for generations. “Our communities are really suffering from not having nutritious food grown locally—our area of the Navajo Nation is considered a ‘food desert’—and kids are not likely to start eating more vegetables unless they are personally involved in growing, harvesting, and tasting the food.”

“Our program involves interaction of students and local farmers as well as developing greenhouses on the school campus, all for the purpose of providing students with healthy, fresh, locally grown vegetables,” Sorensen said.

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“One of our purposes in this program is to help local farmers develop their food safety practices to the point of being able to regularly supply the school with food. It is to fulfill this purpose that we wrote the Navajo Food for Schools Manual.”

The program also teaches values that the students take away to share with their families. “The kids tell me that because of this, they help out more at home. They help their mother more with cooking. They helped their mom make bread. They use these foods in traditional ceremony and they will tell me they helped out.

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Want to read the whole article? Search “farm to school” at indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/

From Food for Thought: Issue 10, published October 2013